Troposheet

A1INTRODUCTION TO TOPOSHEETS-45D/7 AND 45D/10

 
PROFILE OF SURVEY MAP 45 D/7
DESCRIPTION of the Area covered by Survey Sheet No. 45 D/7 (Gujarat and Rajasthan)
District : Banas Kantha and Sirohi
Location: Latitude 24 degree 15’ – 240 30’ North
Longitude 720 15’ - 720 30’ East

This region lies in western India on the borders of Rajasthan and Gujarat at the southern end of the Aravalli Hills, immediately north-east of Sheet 45 D/10.

RELIEF : The area is mainly a plain except for:
1. The east central region where the hills rise to almost 500 m.,
2. The lower hills of the north-east corner.
The slope of the land is from north-east to south-west in the northern half and east to west in the southern portion of the map. (indicated by flow of rivers)


DRAINAGE
1. The Banas river (not to be confused with the Banas river which is a tributary of the Chambal river to the north) flows into the swampland area of the Little Rann, north-east of the Gulf of Kutch. On this survey sheet it flows westward. It has two main right bank tributaries – Sarod and Arado Nadis and the numerous smaller streams like the one entering the river near Chekla (8192). The only left bank tributary is the Balaram Nadi from the south-east. The Banas river varies in width from 1/4km to over 1 km and has a narrow perennial water course. The dry portion fills in during the rainy seas.
2. The Sipu Nadi is a tributary of the Banas river (the confluence) lying to the west of the area shown. It flows from north-east to south-west withits two main tributaries –Varka and Mahadeviyao Nadis joining the left bank. Both rise in the hilly region to the east.

In the region there are numerous other streams that join main rivers. They rise in the higher ground adjacent to the rivers and invariably their courses show large tracts of broken ground indicating soft soil easily eroded by water.

SOILS: Map symbols indicate desert conditions, a large part of the plain area being sandy. Soils are soft as shown by excessive erosion causing broken ground near water courses.

CLIM ATE: There are three climatic seasons:
Summer hot and dry March to June
Monsoon hot and wet July to September
Winter cool and dry October to February

Maximum temperatures in summer are extremely high rising to over 470 C, while minimum temperatures in December/Jan often drops to almost 0 degree C. Because of its location in western India, it receives comparatively less rainfall than other parts of the country. The rainfall which is between 50 to 100 cm annually, falls during the monsoon season. High temperatures cause excessive evaporation. This gives rise to scrub and semi-desert vegetation.

NATURAL VEGETATION : Hill areas – dry deciduous forests of small trees
Plains – scrub and throny trees where there is no agriculture.


IRRIGATION: This region is dependent on the periodic rainfall (Monsoon), tanks, wells for
agriculture. There is only one canal in the north-east starting from the reservoir (2222) 


OCCUPATIONS: Agriculture, rearing of cattle, sheep, camels and horses.
CROPS: Winter (Rabi) – Wheat, Barley, Cotton
Monsoons (Kharif) – Bajra, Jowar, Maize

COMMUNICATIONS: Except for the main line of the Western Railway and the road that runs across the south-east corner of the map through Chitrasani (8923), there are no other important communications. All other settlements are linked by cart tracks.

SETTLEMENTS: Except for Chitrasani which is a rail/road centre, all the settlements are small and widely scattered chiefly in the lowland area and are either nucleated or dispersed in pattern.


 


PROFILE OF SURVEY MAP 45 D/10

DESCRIPTION of the Area covered by Survey Sheet No. 45 D/10 (Gujarat and Rajasthan)
District : Banas Kantha and Sirohi
Location: Latitude 24 degree 30’ – 240 45’ North
Longitude 720 30’ - 720 45’ East

This region lies in western India on the borders of Rajasthan and Gujarat at the southern end of the Aravalli Hills, immediately north-east of Sheet 45 D/7.

RELIEF : The sheet is divided into two distinct physical divisions:
1. The Aravalli Hills rising to a height of over 1400 meters and occupying the south-east corner. The ranges are more or less parallel and run in a NE to SW directon.
2. A large plain covers the remaining portion of the sheet. There are frequent outcrops of rocky ground, some of it rising to over 400 m (i.e. 100 m above the surrounding country side.)

DRAINAGE: In the hill area, the drainage is radial. Abu being the highest point of the area is the centre from which the rivers radiate. In the plains, the upper courses of the rivers are dendritic or fan shaped. The main stream Sipu Nadi rises in the hills north of Abu and flows in a south-west direction. It is periodic and seldom exceeds ½ km in width.

TRIBUTARIES: Right bank : Sukli Nadi, Unda Wala, Dior Nadi,
Left bank: Sukli Nadi, unnamed river flowing past Dhavli, Devengan Nadi and Godua Nadi

NOTE:
1. There are three Sukli Nadis in the survey sheet.
2. Because this regions lies close to the desert areas where the soils tend to break up easily, the water courses are numerous and well defined for they are able to cut channels in the soft sandy soils. They are however periodic and rely on the rainy season for the water supply.

CLIM ATE: There are three climatic seasons:
Summer hot and dry March to June
Monsoon hot and wet July to September
Winter cool and dry October to February

Maximum temperatures in summer are extremely high rising to over 470 C, while minimum temperatures in December/Jan often drops to almost 0 degree C. Because of its location in western India, it receives comparatively less rainfall than other parts of the country. The rainfall which is between 50 to 100 cm annually, falls during the monsoon season. High temperatures cause excessive evaporation. This gives rise to scrub and semi-desert vegetation.

NATURAL VEGETATION : Hill areas – dry deciduous forests of small trees
Plains – scrub and throny trees where there is no agriculture.
IRRIGATION: This region is dependent on the periodic rainfall (Monsoon), tanks, wells for
agriculture. There is only one canal in the north-east starting from the reservoir (2222)
OCCUPATIONS: Agriculture, rearing of cattle, sheep, camels and horses.
CROPS: Winter (Rabi) – Wheat, Barley, Cotton
Monsoons (Kharif) – Bajra, Jowar, Maize

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PROFILE OF SURVEY MAP 45 D/10

DESCRIPTION of the Area covered by Survey Sheet No. 45 D/10 (Gujarat and Rajasthan)
District : Banas Kantha and Sirohi
Location: Latitude 24 degree 30’ – 240 45’ North
Longitude 720 30’ - 720 45’ East

This region lies in western India on the borders of Rajasthan and Gujarat at the southern end of the Aravalli Hills, immediately north-east of Sheet 45 D/7.

RELIEF : The sheet is divided into two distinct physical divisions:
1. The Aravalli Hills rising to a height of over 1400 meters and occupying the south-east corner. The ranges are more or less parallel and run in a NE to SW directon.
2. A large plain covers the remaining portion of the sheet. There are frequent outcrops of rocky ground, some of it rising to over 400 m (i.e. 100 m above the surrounding country side.)

DRAINAGE: In the hill area, the drainage is radial. Abu being the highest point of the area is the centre from which the rivers radiate. In the plains, the upper courses of the rivers are dendritic or fan shaped. The main stream Sipu Nadi rises in the hills north of Abu and flows in a south-west direction. It is periodic and seldom exceeds ½ km in width.

TRIBUTARIES: Right bank : Sukli Nadi, Unda Wala, Dior Nadi,
Left bank: Sukli Nadi, unnamed river flowing past Dhavli, Devengan Nadi and Godua Nadi

NOTE:
1. There are three Sukli Nadis in the survey sheet.
2. Because this regions lies close to the desert areas where the soils tend to break up easily, the water courses are numerous and well defined for they are able to cut channels in the soft sandy soils. They are however periodic and rely on the rainy season for the water supply.

CLIM ATE: There are three climatic seasons:
Summer hot and dry March to June
Monsoon hot and wet July to September
Winter cool and dry October to February

Maximum temperatures in summer are extremely high rising to over 470 C, while minimum temperatures in December/Jan often drops to almost 0 degree C. Because of its location in western India, it receives comparatively less rainfall than other parts of the country. The rainfall which is between 50 to 100 cm annually, falls during the monsoon season. High temperatures cause excessive evaporation. This gives rise to scrub and semi-desert vegetation.

NATURAL VEGETATION : Hill areas – dry deciduous forests of small trees
Plains – scrub and throny trees where there is no agriculture.
IRRIGATION: This region is dependent on the periodic rainfall (Monsoon), tanks, wells for
agriculture. There is only one canal in the north-east starting from the reservoir (2222)
OCCUPATIONS: Agriculture, rearing of cattle, sheep, camels and horses.
CROPS: Winter (Rabi) – Wheat, Barley, Cotton
Monsoons (Kharif) – Bajra, Jowar, Maize
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A3 SIGNIFICANCE OF COLORS IN TOPOSHEETS

 
SIGNIFICANCE OF COLOURS IN TOPOSHEETS
On toposheets colours are used to show certain features. Each colour used on a map has significance.
1. BLACK – All names, river banks, broken ground, dry streams, surveyed trees, heights and their numbering, railway lines, telephone and telegraph lines, lines of latitude and longitude
2. BLUE – Water features or water bodies that contain water.
3. GREEN – All wooded and forested areas, orchards, scattered trees and scrubs.
Note:- Prominent surveyed trees are shown in black. Surveyed trees have numbers on their trunks. They serve as landmarks and are not allowed to be cut.
4. YELLOW – All cultivated areas are shown with a yellow wash.
5. WHITE PATCHES – Uncultivable land
6. BROWN – Contour lines, their numbering, form lines, and sand features such as sand hills and dunes
7. RED – Grid lines (eastings and northhings) and their numbering, roads, cart tracks, settlements, huts and buildings.


SETTLEMENTS
1. On a topo map, all settlements are shown by symbols in RED colour.
2. The size of the symbol and size and style of letters used give an idea of the size of the settlement.
3. In the case of large cities, major roads are marked and named.
4. Deserted village cities, temporarily occupied huts are also shown.
5. Places of worship, forts, water towers, burial grounds, police stations, post office, dak bungalow, circuit houses, etc. are indicated by suitable symbols.
NOTE – Site is the land on which the settlement (village or town) is built.
· Dense settlements : Fertile plains and wide river valleys.
· Sparse Settlements : forests, deserts, mountain slopes, plateaus and hill tops with poor vegetation
· Absence of Settlements: Swamps, marsh land, sandy deserts, thick impenetrable forests, flood-prone areas, steep mountain slopes.
OCCUPATION AND MAP FEATURES

AGRICULTURE – Level land with yellow wash; many wells
LUMBERING: Forests
CATTLE REARING – Pastures, meadows, grasslands, presence of road in highland region (sheep)
FISHING – Plenty of rivers
MINING –Stony wastes, quaries, limestone beds
TRADE – Dense settlements near road
INDUSTRY – Large settlements near roads and railways, presence of raw materials, (like making, cement industry near limestone beds)
TOURISM – hotels and inns

APPROXIMATE OR RELATIVE HEIGHT
This height is not taken from sea level but with respect to the surrounding area. It may be the height of a dam, bridge, sand dune or it can be the depth of a well, tank, hill or river canal, for example , 3r, 5r, 8r, etc.

EXAMPLE:
3r - the relative depth of perennial lined well in 3 metres ●3r
5r – the relative height of dry tank is 5 metres Ο5r

NOTE: CHECK THE SYMBOL – if it is tank, dam, bridge, embankment, etc then write the answer this way - the relative height of .............................. is ................meters.
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A3A-IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS ON TOPOSHEETS

 

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
DEFINITIONS FROM TOPO MAPS



REPRESENTATIVE FRACTION (RF): It is the ratio between the distances on the map to its corresponding distance on actual ground. The RF on this map is 1:50,000. 

2. SCALE : Scale is the ratio between the distance of any two points on the map and the actual distance of the same points on the ground.

The scale of the given map extract is 2 cm: 1 km or 1:50,000.

3. CONTOUR: Contours are imaginary lines drawn on maps, joining all places with the same height above sea level. 

4. CONTOUR INTERVAL: The interval between two consecutive contours is called contour interval (*it is a constant 20 mts in your toposheets.) 

5. INDEX CONTOUR: Contour lines are thickened at regular intervals to make it easier to read contours. For example at every 100 mts the contour line is made darker. The darker lines are called Index Contours. 

6. TRIANGULATED HEIGHT: It is the height of a place which has been calculated using trigonometry, represented by a small triangle e.g. - 540

7. SPOT HEIGHT: The height of random places between contours shown with a dot. Eg - .425 

8. BENCH MARK - Height of a place actually marked on a stone pillar, rock or shown on a building as a permanent reference. It is written as BM 200 m. 

9. RELATIVE HEIGHT: Relative height is the height of a feature with reference to the height of the surrounding land and NOT to sea level.
It is represented by the height with a small ‘r’ eg –12r. 


10. ROCK OUTCROP: It is a portion of rock jutting above the surface of the earth. 

11. SHEET ROCK: Large areas of rock where the overlying soil layers have been eroded and removed due to mechanical weathering. 

9 STONY WASTE : A large area usually in arid/semi arid regions where the finer sand/soil has blown away leaving a surface covered with boulders, stones and pebbles. 

10. BROKEN GROUND: A relief feature found mostly in dry regions around rivers and streams. It is land around river, which is totally
weathered (exfoliated) due to alternate cooling and heating. 


11. FIRELINE: A cleared pathway in a forest to prevent the spread of forest fires.

12. MIXED FOREST: A forest with more than two varieties of trees growing in close proximity to each other. 

13. OPEN JUNGLE: A forest where trees are widely scattered. 

14. DENSE JUNGLE. : A forest where trees grow very close to each other.

15. OPEN SCRUB: Scrub is a vegetation found in regions with less than
100 cms of rainfall. Therefore it indicates a dry region. 


16. BRACKISH: It is a well, which has water with very high salt content – generally unfit for drinking purposes. 

17. CAUSEWAY: It is a raised road over a small water body. (Usually a road used only in the non rainy months.} 

18. CUTTING: A portion of land, which has been cut in order to make land available for transport routes. (it is indicative of a rocky region) 

19. EMBANKMENT: They are raised rock or soil filled constructions on which roads/railway tracks are built. Also made near tanks and rivers to prevent flooding.

20. FORM LINES: Form lines are contour lines, but show only approximate heights above sea level as they are used to indicate the elevations of the area which are not accessible for proper survey. Hence they are drawn as broken lines and are called 'form lines'.

21. Q.C. Q.D., OC, OD,PQ, ETC : These are alphabetical codes used to represent the biggest grid sq. of 10,000 square kms.

The Govt of India has adopted metric system for all measurements. All the ordnace survey maps issued by the Survey of India were drawn to the scale 2 cm = 1 km. In this system , the surveyed territory is divided into 100km X 100 km squares, and each square is denoted by English alphabets. for example, OC, OD, PQ, PG, etc . This system of map drawing is known as National Grid Reference.

22. LAYER TINTING: (colouring)
While spot heights show the height of the land, they only do so at certain points. To provide an overall image which conveyed height, a technique called layer tinting was developed. Layer tinting uses different colours (or shades) to represent different heights. It is a mapping convention for darker colours to signify greater height. When using layer tinting, green is often used for low land, yellow for higher land and brown for the highest land.
Layer tinting is most commonly found on physical maps. While layer tinting is useful, it does not show the detailed shape of the land.

23. DEP: It is a depression often found in sandy areas where the wind, having blown away the sand, leaves a hollow or a depression.

24. HACHURING: Early cartographers attempted to show surface features on maps by using the technique of hachuring. Hachures use short lines of varying thickness to show the shape and slope of the land. In accordance with this technique, the steeper the slope is, the thicker the lines are which represent it. While hachuring was initially innovative for its time, it gradually began to be replaced since the actual height of the land was not depicted.

25. LIME KILN OR BRICK KILN: These are open furnaces where limestone is purified or bricks are baked for construction purpose.

26. HILL SHADING: Hill shading resembles a light and shadow effect. Valleys and the sides of mountains appear as though they are cast in shadow. This is a visually striking method, which is ideal for providing an overall view of the relief of an area. Hill shading, however, does not show height which means that it is no more accurate than hachuring.

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A4 INTERPRETING TOPO SHEETS - PART 2

 
Man-made and Natural Features

Toposheets shows various details of an area- natural and man made features by means of conventional signs(legends), contours and pictorial diagrams in conventional colours.
•Natural features – rivers, streams, sand features, trees, broken grounds, natural ponds, unlined wells, jungles, depresions (Dep), islands (in the exposed river beds), physical features like hills, waterfalls, spurs, river valleys and cliffs, shown by contours and their heights.
•MAN made features – surveyed trees, queries, permanent huts, causeways, mines, metalled and unmetalled roads, pack tracts, cart tracts, artificial lakes with embankments, boundaries (national and international), post offices, police chowkies and inspection bungalows.

 
Means of Transport in Relation to Relief

•Transport always depend on the type of relief and drainage
•Eg. Very high altitudes, mountaineous areas-only roads and no railway tracks- difficult to build at such heights
•On the map-roads are shown by means of symbols of cart tracks, pack tracts, metalled roads, unmetalled roads, footpaths with a bridge.
•Main towns- well connected by metalled roads show economic devp of the area-is the indication of trade being carried on.
•Hence town shows well developed.
•Causeways are raised platforms across a dry stream.
•During dry season when the stream dries up, people make a habit of crossing it.
•Thus, a footway is formed.
•Presence of many causeways shows that the area gets seasonal or scanty rainfall.

 

DIRECTIONS

•Directions- important tool while reading topo map.
•Directions are important for physical as well as urban features.
•Physical features- directions of rivers
which direction river flows.

•REMEMBER THESE STEPS:
1.First look at the spot heights to determine the slope of the land
2.To know which side/bank of the river a place is situated, one has to locate the source of the river. Having located the direction of the river, imagine yourself standing at the source of the river facing the main river facing the main river. Now to your right is right bank and to your left is the left bank.


 
Calculation of Area
 

Area= Length x Breadth
•In topo maps, each grid (square) 2cm X 2cm or 1 km to 1 km as per the scale 2 cm=1 km
•Therefore , area of each square is
4 sq cm (on the map)= 1 sq km (on the ground)
In metres, this can be expressed as
Area of each square (i.e. 4 sq cm) = 1000 X 1000
or 1,000,000 sq m.

 
To calculate the area by grid square method:
 

If there are some incomplete squares, area can be calcualted as follows:
-Note the number of completed squares
-Squares covered half are taken as ½
-Squares covering less than half area are taken as 1/3
-Squares covering more than half of the area are taken as 2/3
-All these estimated squares are added together and the sum is multiplied by the scale of the area given out above to obtain the desired area.
 
 
 
 
 
LAND USE
 

•IN topomap location of veg is closely related to relief.
•In the highlands, vegetation is shown –green colour along with contours in brown showing elevation.
•To show density of wooded area, different terms used:
•Dense forest, open-mixed forest, open jungle, fairly-mixed jungle, dense-mixed jungle, mixed jungle, Reserved Forest (RF), Protected Forest (PF), fairly mixed jungle with bamboo, dense mixed jungle with bamboo.
•The exterior boundaries of areas of Reserved or Protected forest are shown by green ribands .
 
 
 
THE PLAINS:-
•Plains-mainly agriculture- cultivable land is shown in yellow colour
•White patch in plain shows bad land or rocky, uncultivable land.
•In such land, following features are found-
•Open scrub – scrub land where mostly sheep and goat rearing is practiced
•Stony waste – the land which is mostly covered with rock boulders and stones and cultivation is not possible.
 
 
 
SHEET ROCKS:-
•Sheet rocks – a region mostly covered with a sheet of rock.
•Rock outcrop – In such region subsoil is exposed and cultivation is not possible.
•Broken ground – developed because of absence of natural vegetation on both the banks of the river. It is common in the desert area and in the areas of gully erosion.This is formed due to floods which occur during rainy season. Because of floods, the top soil is washed away developing into bad land which has loose soil and is uncultivable.
 
 
 
LOW LANDS:-
•Plains which are situated at lower level are mostly characterized by a meandering river.
•A disappearing stream shows a desert or limestone area
•Presence of canal, wells, tube wells and tanks indicate use of land for agriculture by means of irrigation
•A meandering river shows a flat area
•Perennial lined wells indicate a higher water table and are shown by blue dots.
 
 
 

•Presence of dry streams, dry ponds, exposed river beds and broken land shown in black indicate an area with scanty rainfall or seasonal rainfall or a desert region.
•Settlements are generally found on either side of river-wherever irrigation by canals or perennial lined wells is available
 

 

 

MEANS OF IRRIGATION


•Irrigation largely depends on relief and land use pattern of area (blue)
•Hilly region- no cultivation is possible, hence there is no need for irrigation
•On the flat lands which are coloured yellow, one can see blue, round spots which represent perennial lined wells. – therefore one can say that the main source of irrigation in such areas are wells and the occupation of people is farming.
•Other means of irrigation are canals, ponds, artifical lakes withj embankments and river in case it is perennial.
•Presence of dry streams and dry ponds with uncultivable lands shown in white indicates that the rainfall in the area is scanty.
•Presence of artificial man-made lake with embankment shows that water is being stored in off season and is used for irrigation through canals.

 

OCCUPATIONS


•Occupations have to be inferred from toposheets as there are no symbols to show the occupations of people.
•Sometimes, certain names like ‘farms’, ‘orchards’ provide some evidence of these occupations.
•The following list gives you some information about occupation of the people from a topo-sheet.


OCCUPATIONS EVIDENCES
Forestry, lumbering Forest or Green Patch
Agriculture Yellow Patch or orchards with many wells
Cattle-grazing or sheep rearing Meadows or Scrub, grasslands, meadows, pastures
Quarrying and mining Mines and Quarries, lime stone beds
Trade Settlement near main roads, ports, rivers, etc – dense

settlement
Entertainment & Cultural devpmnt Gold Courses, Parks, Rifle Ranges, etc
Industry Factory, mines, large settlements near roads and

railways, presence of raw materials (lime making and

cement industry near limestone beds)
Fishery Coast,l akes, rivers, etc
Tourism Hotels and Inns


•Thus, the occupation of the people of an area can be inferred from the following :
•Topography of land
•Size of settlement
•Presence of quarry and mines
•Communication network indicating trade

 

REMEMEMBER FEW POINTS:

HACHURING: Hachuring are short lines representing directions of a slope. For steep slopes they are drawn closer together than for the gentle slopes. However on flat ground, they cannot be used.

SPOT HEIGHTS: Spot heights are used to provide more information about land surfaces between the contours. These are represented by a number preceded by a dot. for example ●340

 

TRIANGULATION POINTS: When the spot heights are accurately surveyed, the dot is enclosed within a triangle and are called the triangulation points.

 

 

BENCH MARKS: The marks inscribed stones or shown on buildings to indicate the exact height determined through the surveys, are called the Bench Marks. These marks are shown by letters BM along with height . eg. BM 590

INDEX CONTOURS: To make the maps easier to read, contour lines are thickened at regular intervals. These thickened contour lines are called index contours.

FORM LINES: These are broken lines between contour lines to indicate minor details. They show approximate heights above sea level as they are used to indicate the elevations of the area which are not accessible for proper suvey.Hence they are drawn as broken lines and are called 'form lines'.

TRIGONOMETRICAL STATIONS: These points show height and are marked by a triangle and height. eg.∆ 877

 

SOME IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

 

1. What do you understand by R.F.?

R.F. stands for representative fraction. It is a ratio between the distance on a map and the actual distance on the ground. On this map the R.F. is 1:50,000 which means that 1 cm on the map represents 500 m on the ground, or, 1 cm on the ground represents 0.5 km on the ground.

 

2. What is Contour Interval?

 

Contour Interval is the difference in height between two consecutive contour lines. In the survey sheet of India, the contour interval is 20 metres.

 

3. What are contours?nState their properties.

 

The imaginary lines which are drawn on a map to joining places having the same height above the sea level.

 

Properties of the contours are as follows:

 

* contour lines join all places of the same height above sea level.

 

* distant contour lines indicate gentle slopes.

 

* closely spaced contour lines indicate steepy slopes.

 

* uniformly spaced contour lines indicate a uniform slope.

 

* contour intervals also differ according to the scale of themap.

 

* contour lines generally do not intersect each other on the map. However in some places they intersect , where it indicates a steeper cliff or a waterfall.

4. What is Grid? Give the importance of National Grid?

An imaginary network of equidstanct lines printed on map. It enables in locating the position of a place to be accurately defined in a simple way than by using latitudes and longitudes. National Grid is a co-ordinate used for map reference by ordinance survey.

5. What do you understand by 'scale' of a map?

A scale is a ratio of distance between any two points on a map to the corresponding distance between the same two points on the actual ground.

6. What is statement of scale?

It expresses the relationship of map to ground in words, such as one centimeter to five kilometres. It is expressed as 1 cm : 5 km.

7. What are cardinal points?

The four main directions of North, South, East and West are known as cardinal points.

8. What is 'causeway'?

It is a raised metalled road across a minor stream or low lying marshy area at a shallow point.

9. What is Grid square?

It is an area of 1 sq km demarcated on the toposheet by the intersection of Grid line. Each Grid square measures 2 sq cm distance of map.

10. What is meant by the term Fire Line? Account for the necessity of Fire Lines in the jungle area of the given map extract.

'Fire Line' means a clearing or a gap or an empty space that runs through a forest area. It is often also a trench which is filled with water or sand. This is done to stop the spread of fire in the forest.

11. What advantage does a Representative Fraction have over a verbal scale?

It has universal application as it does not use any unit.

12. what do the figures 1:50,000 printed on the map extract mean?

The figures 1:50,000 mean that one cm on the map represents 50,000 cm on the ground i.e. 1 unit on the map is equal to 50,000 units on the ground. It also means Representative Fraction.

13. What is the meaning of the conventional sign given on the map?

PTO - It means Post and Telegraph Office.

14. What does the brown line in toposheet indicate?

The brown line in the grid squre ______ is the indication of a contour line.

15. Explain why there are so many causeways along the metalled road.

There are many causeways along the metalled road because of seasonal streams/dry streams.

16. On the map, what does the following indicate: i. Green wash ii. yellow wash

The green colur indicates that it is fit for forestry/open mixed jungle and the yellow colour indicates that the land is fit for agriculture/cultivation/farming.

17. Name the geographical feature represnted by white patches in the middle of a particular river.

The geographical feature represented by the white patches in the middle of the river is an island and rocks/accumulation of pebbles.

18What does 3 r written in the tank in grid square indicate?

It indicates the relative height of the tank which is 3 m above sea level.

19. What is the general land use of i. even ground ii uneven ground?

The general uses of even ground are agriculture or cultivation or farming, for construction of canals, for laying of railway linesm markets and development of townships and the general uses of uneven ground are vegetation, forests, grazing, forestry, and mining.

20. What does the word brackish in the toposheet indicate?

It indicates the water of the lined well is salty or saline, not fit for agriculture and drinking.

21. What does the letters LY indicate?

it indicates a subdivision of a survey map indicating an area of 100 x 100 km.

22. Why do you hve the letters QC and QD side by side?

QC or QD indicate a subdivision of a survey map 100 x 100 km. Between QC and QD, Es are 00.

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A5 TOPOSHEET - EXERCISE 2

 

See the features of this toposheet. Divide the toposheet into 4 quarters. Study the each quarter. For example North west corner (A), North East Corner (B), South West Corner(c) and South East Corner (D). For example what features do you see in the A Corner???First of all, you see river Sipu, a few nucleated settlements, yellow wash, open scrub, little bit of green forest on top of A corner, we can see some spot heights too. Can you see a cart track (red line)? We can also see perennial wells (blue). Did you spot stony waste (8596)? In the same way, go through the B corner and C corner and D corner. Make a mental picture of the toposheet with prominent symbols. After having a quick glance of thetoposheet, read the questions that are asked. You have 15 minutes to read the question paper. First read the other questions and then come to the toposheet which requires more time to read. Keep a pencil ready to mark few features.For the bigger view of the toposheet, click on top of the picture.

  • Can you see R.F.? You can see at the bottom right. R.F. is 1:50,000. I have already explained to you how to write R.F. in the earlier lesson.

  • can you see the scale? You can see almost near the R.F. The scale is 2cm to 1 km. It means 2cm on the map is equal to the 1km on the ground. Good, i suppose u understood.

  • What's the contour interval of the toposheet? Check the contour interval near the scale. Contour interval of this toposheet is 20 metres.(usually it is 20 metres)

  • What else can you see? Ok, let's do the direction which i have explained to you earlier. Find out what is the directionof Rajkot lie from Gangudra? First of all, Rajkot is in grid square 8995 and gangudra is in grid square 8793. Imagine you are in Gangudra and you want to go to Rajkot from Gangudra? First of all, you hv to go up which is north and then you have to turn right, which is east direction.Therefore the comapass direction is north-east from Gangudra. Do you follow?

  • Where do you find the lowest part in the toposheet? The south west corner is the lowest part in the map. because two rivers flow towards south west whichis an indication of the slope. check the spot heights in the map. they are decreasing towards south west. Identify some spotheights in the map.

  • See the settlements on the map: What type of settlement do you find? Ofcourse, nuclear/compact/clustered. If you didnt understand, read the text book on settlements and come back to the blog.

  • What kind of rainfal this area gets? check the rivers-we can see broad sandy bed exposed, a thin water channel, (in blue) several cart tracks, and a pack track. This shows that the area gets seasonal rainfall.

  • Now let us see the occupation. Study the toposheet closely. I had told you about the occupations. Go through it again. Let us study the occupation of Bhadli (Jhat) - grid square 8596. What do you notice there? click the toposheet and check. its is A CORNER. There is a river, perennial wells (Blue dots), yellow patch(which means agriculture) and stony waste. Can you see them? From this we know that the occupation of the people of that area is cultivation and stone cutting or extraction of limestone. This is indicated by the presence of agricultural land ( in yellow colour), perennial wells and the presence of lime kilns.

  • It is a clustered settlement too.

  • Can you see the irrigation facilities or source of water? We can see the river which has narrow blue line which means it is perennial even though the river is seasonal. Then we also can see the perennial wells. So two perennial source of water is the River waters and well irrigation.

  • Let's study man made features - we can see few temples in the toposheets and permanent huts. I couldn't see any post office. As I have told you, my eyes are not very sharp. In the exam, they will ask one or two man-made features. So the man-made features are temples and permanent huts.

  • Now let's study the natural features - We can see rivers, trees, islands in the middle of the river, jungles, mines, pack tracks, cart tracks, lined wells, etc. You can see all these in this map. So, you select any two. The natural feature is river and forest. Sometime they will give a grid square and ask to you to mention one man-made feature and one natural feature. Go and locate that grid square and follow the points that I have told you.

  • Let us see the drainage pattern on the map. See the area around the town Gangudra.(Grid square 8793) See the drainage pattern around the area-dont see only in the grid square 8793. Go beyond that. The river or drainage pattern is Rectangular or Trellised. Can you see the shape of the river? Thin lines that join the main river. Read the text book regarding the drainage pattern (if you have not understood) There are three drainage patterns - Dendritic(Tree like or veins of a leaf) Trellis/Rectangle and Radial.

  • Let us study the river bed of Sipu- In what two ways does the river bed of Sipu convey that it flows through a region of seasonal rainfall? We did go through that earlier. Study the river. It has a broad sandy riverbed which is exposed. If you dont understand the sandy river bed, go to the text book and looks for the symbos of sandy bed. You will see it in my blog too. It also has a thin water channel in the middle of the river. We also see many cart and pack tracks passing the river. Therefore, the river doesn't have much water in the summer season and so the river dries up. Do you follow me? Since the river is dry, you see the sandy beds and cart and pack tracks passing the river. So the people can cross the river during summer. Therefore it is a seasonal river.(it means the river gets water only in the rainy season).

  • What are the conventional sighs near north east part of the toposheet near open mixed jungle? - check corner B - We find broken ground there. So what is broken land? Broken land gives rise to Bad land topography. These are generally found along the banks of a river. Broken ground is caused due to erosion during rain when the river is in flood. It usually heappens in the area where there is no vegetation/plants.

  • Some time a question comes on the comparision of two settlements. Now let us study the village Jigol (grid square 8590) and other villages. Jigol is better off than other settlements. It has good transport system in comparision with other villages. We can see many cart tracks leading into the village. Plus it has many lined wells for irrigation purposes.

  • In which quarter of the map extract do you find the lowest area to be? Divide the whole toposheet into 4 corners. We have done that in the beginning. Look for the spot heights in the toposheet. if you study the heights, you will find south west qurater of the map are decreasing towards the south west. See also the river flowing. They flow towards the south west. So the south-west corner of the map exatract is the lowest region.

  • Hope you know how to find grid squares - 4 figure or 6 figure/digit grid reference. Find four digit grid square is easy but the problem begins when you have to find 6-digit grid reference. When you are asked to locate the 6-digit reference, rememeber these points. First find the square. Ok, let us locate a place using 6-figure grid reference of a temple in the north east of Odhava. Ok, let us see the 4-figure grid reference. It is in the grid square 8992. This is four figure grid reference. now we need 6-figure grid reference. After locating 4-figure grid reference, divide that square into 4 equal parts. First take a ruler and place it on the horizontal line of that grid square(. get the mid point. Then place the ruler on the vertical line and find the mid point and join these mid points. then u get the mid point of easting and northings. then u locate the spot in the grid square and if the spot is beoynd the mid point, then it wil be above 5. You can find the exact 6 figure grid reference by dividing grid squares into 10 blocks. Hold the scale vertical and horizontal on that grid square and join them. Now u get 10 X 10 equal squares. NOw you see where is the spot and give the grid reference.894925
  • A6 SOME COMMON QUESTIONS ON TOPOSHEETS

     
    If you get these questions, look for these points in the toposheets and can write these answers:

    1.Mention ay two features seen in the map extract which indicate the region has seasonal rainfall.
    Seasonal streams/ Broken ground/open scrub/seasonal tank/cart track motorable in dry season/narrow perennial channel in the dry bed of the river
    (after looking for these features, select any two features that you find on the topo sheet and write this way)

    Ans: Open scrub and seasonal streams are two features in the map that indicate the region has seasonal rainfall. 
    Rivers, steams and ponds/tanks are dry in nature.
    Barren land shown in white colour also indicate tht the region has seasonal rainfall.


    2.Mention any three features seen in the map extract which attract holiday makers.
    (look for various tourist destinations like temple, water falls, lakes, park, sunset points, etc and then write answers)

    3. Which is the chief form of irrigation shown in the map extract? Give somE evidences to justify your answer.
    (look for perennial wells first, then the rivers, lakes, tanks, etc and give answer. For example, if you find the presence of many blue circles in the map, then you can write your answer this way.)

    Ans: The chief form of irrigation is perennial well-irrigation. Presence of blue circles scattered all over the map .

    4. Give one reason to explain why the steams in grid square ......... do not join a river. 


    (look for sandy soil , rainfall, etc)
    Ans; Reasons for streams not meeting the main river due to:-
    * presence of sandy soil which is porous
    * poor rainfall
    * high rate of evaporation. (any two ) 


    5. State two reasons for the absence of human habitation in some region of the map extract.
    ( check for any features that is not suitable for human habitation – like dense forest, open shrubs, steep hills, deserts, lack of roads, etc)
    Ans: The region is densely forested, many streams with very steep hills. Expensive to build roads. 


    6. What is the small white patch in the river?
    Ans: Barren island 







     

    7. What will be the main occupation of the people be in i. highlands ii. Lowlands?
    i. highlands – collection of forest products
    ii. Lowlands - agriculture

     


    8. Why are there no metalled roads in the mapped area?
    ( reasons may be many- look for dense jungles, or barren land, steep hills, or many streams – and then answer according to the features,)
    Ans: The area has dense jungles, steep hills and no important settlement- steams and barren land discourage the building of metalled roads.



    9. Give evidence to prove poor rainfall in the region.

    (look for features like sand dunes disappearing steams, scrub vegetation, broken grounds, etc. If you find these features, then you write the answer this way)
    Ans. The region has poor rainfall due to the
    •Presence of sand dunes
    •Presence of undefined and disappearing streams
    •Presence of scrub vegetation
    •Presence of broken grounds 


    10. Give two reasons for the presence of only footpaths in the green wash.
    The reasons for the presence of foot-paths are:

    * seep and rugged terrain makes construction of roads difficult.
    * temples are the only destinations in the forested mountain region and hence foot-paths are created by the pilgrims.
    * footpaths may be created by people who depend on forest produce. 


    11. Why do so many contour lines so close together in the extract indicate about the topography?
    (look for steep hills, or a temple in the jungle and if u find these.................)
    Ans: Very steep (indicated by close contours) and hilly (indicated by many contours) land. 




     

     

     

    12. How can we draw a climatic inference from a toposheet?

     

    (there may be a question - what type of climate do you find in the particular area - look for these features and then write the answers accordingly -First of all, we should try to know which area of the toposheet belongs to. This gives us a faint idea about the part of the country and the type of climate prevailing there. Further, scanty amount of rainfall can be judged by seeing dry rivers, dry tanks, sand dunes and scrubs and scanty vegetation. Similarly dense forests indicate tropical monsoon climate.)

     

    (If you find dry rivers, or dry tanks or sannd dunes, scrubs, scanty vegetation, then your answer wil be)

     

    The area experiences scanty rainfall or poor rainfall with dry weather.

     

    (if you find dense forests, then your answer will be)

     

    The area experinces Tropical Monsoon climate.

     

     

     

    Questions on occupation

     

    13. What is the occupation of the people of a particular region from an extract of the survey map or toposheet?

     

    (When you get a question on the occupation of the people , look for these features. Directly from a toposheet, we cannot know about the occupation of the residents. We can amplify the occupation by inferences provided on the toposheet. Therefore one must know the colours and what it indicates. For example, all of you know that yellow colour indicates agricultural land and hence agriculutre can be major occupation. Green colour shows forested or wooded area and this indicates that people follow in lumbering, furniture making, carpentry and bamboo work, etc. Presence of big towns, industrial area, railway station, etc., indicates that people must be employed in urban services. Rest houses in hilly areas show devp of tourism. symbols of mines, may suggest that some people are employed in mining activities. if you find grassy area, then it indicates sheep or cattle rearing. Settlement along roadside indicates devp of trade and commerce. If you locate wells, tanks, canals, etc., show the cultivation of cash or cereal crops. parks, lawns, historical monuments indicate occupations like tourism, recreation, cultural devp, etc. So, my dear students, when you get a question on the occupation of the people, look for these features and write the answer accordingly. for example if you find grassy area or open shrubs, then the occupation will be sheep and cattle rearing. I hope you got me. )



    14. What occupations do the people follow in Highland areas?
    Ans: High land regions with steep slopes have the following features: 






     

    • most of the slopes are unsuitable for agriculture. Pastures on the slopes may be fit for grazing.

    • forestry may be a predominant economic activity in this region.

    • flat area over plateaus may be used for cultivation.
     

    15. How can you judge the suitablity of land for agriculture from toposheets? give a good reason.

     

    • a meandering river on the toposheet will indicate a lower or nil gradient. Thus, such a plain area would be suitable for cultivation.

    • Dendritic or tree-like drainage pattern would confirm soft surface suitable for agriculure wheras trellised drainage pattern suggests chalk country, which is not much suited for cultivation.

    • Sand features, e.g. barkhans and disappearing streams would indicate the dry conditions with the high temperature. These conditions are unsuitable for agriculture.

    • presence of broken ground would confirm seasonal flooding. Silt deposition by rivers is a good sign for agriculture.

    • network of canals, dams, tanks and tubewells will indicate intensive use of land for agriculture.

    • so look for these features on the toposheet and write accordingly.
     

    For example, which are the main occupations of the people in this area? give reasons in support of your answer.

     

    ( if you see yellow wash, perennial wells, green colour,kilns on the toposheet, your answer will be like this.)

     

    Ans: Farming and forestry seem to be the two occupations in this area because a large part of the map has yellow wash which symbolizes cultivated area. A large number of perennial wells present in the area also support this inference. Some part of the map shows presence of open jungles.......(mention, south, or north, west or east) which is indicated by green colur which suggests forestry as an important occupation there. presence of kilns shows that lime and brick making is also an occpation of some people.

     

     

     

    POINTS TO REMEMEBR REGARDING OCCUPATIONS:

     

    • If you find KILN , then the occupation will be drying and baking bricks, pottery, limestone, etc. So you write the answer this way:The occupation is drying and baking bricks, pottery, etc due to the presence of Kiln in the area.

    • if you find STONE QUARRY, then the occupation is quarring.

    • If you find irrigation from wells, canals or tanks, farming is the occupation.

    • if you find yellow wash, agriculture is the occupation of the area.

    • if you dont find any source of irrigation, it means farming is likely to be dependent on rainfall only.

    • mining is the occupation if you find settlements near mines or quarries.

    • if you find settlements along the banks of the river, then fishing is an occupation of that area.

    • if settlement is near the forest(green colour), then the people are dependent on forest products like fruits, nuts, or leaves. there may be primitive agriculture. so when you write the answer, write this way: people are dependent on forest produce or foresty and may practice primitive agriculure.

    • if you find large settlements, esp near the metalled roads, the occupation can also be industries, trade, services.

    • in case they are headquarters of districts, taluqs, employment can also be in administrative sector because of the presence of large number of offices and organisations.
     

    so please go through the toposheet properly since one question will be definite on occupation.




    16. What is the brown line in grid square ............. called? What does the figure written aong this line indicate?
    (if it is a brown line , then it is a contour. Second part of the question - imagine you see figure 280 m ... then it means 280 m above sea level.)
    Ans: The brown line that we find in grid square is Contour line. The line 280 m joins places 280 m above sea-level on the map.

    17. What are the brown lines seen in such abundance? What do they indicate?
    (same answer as question 16)
    ans: They are contour lines. They indicate lines joining places having the same height above sea-level. Closeness of the contours indicates mountainous topography.

    17. What is a causeway? Why are there so many causeways in the map?
    Ans: Causeways are land raised across streams for use as metalled road or paths. The numerous streams crossing the metalled road are likely to flood them. 

     

    18. Explain the term Depression in the map.

     

    Ans: Depression is a shallow lowland in a sandy region often created by deflation of wind.

     

    19. Name the geographical feature represented by white patches in the middle of the river.

     

    Ans: The geographical feature in the middle of the river represented by white patches is an island or rocks or stores.

     

    20. What do the following represent in the map? i. Black broken lines ii. Black curved lines.

     

    i. Black broken lines indicate disappearing stream and black curved lines indicate broken ground.

     

     

     

     

     

     


    21. Name 4 methods by which relief is shown on the map.
    * Contour lines * Layer Colouring/tinting * Spot height * Hill shading.

    22. What is layer-tinting/colouring?
    It is a method, where a colour scheme is used to show relief on the map.

     

    23. What is cartography?

     

    Cartography is an art and science of drawing maps, diagrams and charts.

    POINTS TO REMEMBER:





     

    RELATIVE HEIGHT OR APPROXIMATE HEIGHT: REMEMBER:-This height is not taken from the sea level but with respect to the surrounding area. It may be height of a dam, bridge, sand dune, or it can be depth of a well, tank, hill, or river canal, for example 2r, 3r, 5r, 6r, etc.

     

    Example:

     

    3r the relative depth of the perennial lined well is 3 metres.(if 3r is written near the symbol of perennial well. don't write height but the depth)

     

    5r the relative height of dry tank is 5 metres ( if 5r is written near the dry tank symbol)

     

    16r therelative height of sand dune is 16 metres. (if 16r is written near the symbol of sand

     

    dunes)

     

    8r the relative height of river bank is 8 metres (if 8r is written near the river bank)

     

    PLEASE NOTE: you must write the word RELATIVE HEIGHT/DEPTH of .................................

     

     

     

    COLOURS:

     

    7 COLOURS are used on toposheets:

     

    i. BLACK: Names, lines of latitudes and longitudes, broken grounds, river banks, dry rivers, surveyed trees, heights and their numbering, railway mines, telephone, telepgraph lines

     

    ii. RED: Grid lines (eastings and northings) , their numbering, roads, cart tracks, settlements, huts and other buildings.

     

    iii. GREEN: Forested and wooded areas, scrubs, scattered trees, orchards

     

    iv. BLUE: Water bodies containing water like wells, rivers, etc

     

    v. YELLOW: cultivated areas

     

    vi. BROWN: Contour lines, their numbering, form lines, all sand features like sand dunes, sand hills, stony waste

     

    vii. WHITE PATCHES: uncultivated and barren lands

     

     

     

    DIRECTIONS

     

     

     

    Directions are important for physical as well as urban features. the physical features involve the directions of rivers, streams, and the urban cities from one another.

     

    When a question is asked regarding the banks of the river or direction of the river, the following steps should be observed.



    first of all, look at the spot heights to determine the slope of the land. As you know, spot heighs are marked this way ●265 ●289
    see which spot heights are higher and where it is lower, and then you will know which way or direction it slopes. the slope of the land may be from north east to south west. and if you see a river , then it flows from north-east to south-west.
    to know on which side or bank of the river a place is situated (a place may be a temple, settlement, town, etc)one has to locate the source of the river. Having located the direction of the river, imagine yourself standing at the source of the river f acing the main river. to your right is right bank and to your left is left bank. SO SIMPLE, BOSS!!!

    when a question is askend on directions with reference to urban cites/settlements, remember these points.



    some times the questions are asked on the direction of a city or settlement with a reference to the other. First of all, pay attention to the words 'FROM' a place and 'TO' a place. Imagine yourself standing on the 'FROM' PLACE and look at the TO PLACE. Use the direction arrow and write the direction.

    FEW IMPORTANT TERMS:


    A. Layer Tinting: Layer tinting is a method of showing relief by color. A different color is used for each band of elevation. Each shade of color, or band, represents a definite elevation range. A legend is printed on the map margin to indicate the elevation range represented by each color. However, this method does not allow the map user to determine the exact elevation of a specific point—only the range.
     

    b. Form Lines. Form lines are not measured from any datum plane. Form lines have no standard elevation and give only a general idea of relief. Form lines are represented on a map as dashed lines and are never labeled with representative elevations.

     


    c. Shaded Relief. Relief shading indicates relief by a shadow effect achieved by tone and color that results in the darkening of one side of terrain features, such as hills and ridges. The darker the shading, the steeper the slope. Shaded relief is sometimes used in conjunction with contour lines to emphasize these features.

     


    d. Hachures. Hachures are short, broken lines used to show relief. Hachures are sometimes used with contour lines. They do not represent exact elevations, but are mainly used to show large, rocky outcrop areas. Hachures are used extensively on small-scale maps to show mountain ranges, plateaus, and mountain peaks.

     


    e. Contour Lines. Contour lines are the most common method of showing relief and elevation on a standard topographic map. A contour line represents an imaginary line on the ground, above or below sea level. All points on the contour line are at the same elevation. The elevation represented by contour lines is the vertical distance above or below sea level.

    (1) Index. Starting at zero elevation or mean sea level, every fifth contour line is a heavier line. These are known as index contour lines. Normally, each index contour line is numbered at some point. This number is the elevation of that line.

    (2) Intermediate. The contour lines falling between the index contour lines are called intermediate contour lines. These lines are finer and do not have their elevations given. There are normally four intermediate contour lines between index contour lines.

    (3) Supplementary. These contour lines resemble dashes. They show changes in elevation of at least one-half the contour interval. These lines are normally found where there is very little change in elevation, such as on fairly level terrain.

    A6A-more explanation on toposheet

     

    A6B-TOPOSHEET EXPLAINED

     
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A7 TOPOSHEET - EXERCISE 1

 
click on the toposheet to get larger picture


 
 
Study the Sheet No. 45D/10 (Eastings 16-25, Northings 18-27) and answer the following questions:-
a) Red parallel lines link north to south. What does it stand for? It is also seen crossing a canal in themiddle part. What is the feature shown at the crossing point? (2)
b) Explain the following terms in the grid square 2025: (2)
i) DB ii) ● 302
c) Give the four figure grid reference of the following. (2)
i) Moti Talao south of the sheet ii) Stony Waste in the north west iii) PO
iv) Village in Burai Khera
d) What type of river Sipu Nadi is? How is the settlement Gulabanj protected from seasonal floods of this river? (2)
e) Give the direction of the following: (2)
i) Sukli Nadi from Sipu Nadi ii) Gulabanj from Pamera Village (1822)
f) Calculate the length of the road in the map extract from north to south. Mention the end points of the road so calculated. (2)
g) What does fire line in grid square 2519 mean? Give essential references. (2)
h) Describe the land use pattern in the whole area of the map extract. (2)
i) What is the main occupations of the people? (2)
j) Refer to the grid square 1827. Describe two natural forces shown in the area. (2)
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A8 TOPOSHEETS - EXERCISE 3

 
Let us revise. Your active co-operation is required. Do not refer to the text book for any symbols nor check my notes. Let us see how much you have understood. Consider this as a mock test. Send your answers in the comments section in the blog itself. After sending the answer, you can refer to the book to check whether you have got your answers right. More questions will follow tomorrow. Shall we begin?First , write down few questions on a sheet of paper before you click on the toposheet.

QUESTION 1:FIND 4-FIGURE GRID REFERENCE OF THE FOLLOWING:
a. Village Panthawada b. Settlement Gonodora
c. Lime Kiln near/west of Palswala
d. dry tank near village Lakhnasar
e. Open Scrub in the south-west
f. Settlement Atal in the south
g. Village Gonodaria near Sipu river
h. Open scrub in the north
i. Sheet rock east of village Sodapur
j. Village Santarwada
k. Village Mahudi Moti
l. Settlement Rampura in the South

QUESTION 2 : Find 6-figure grid reference:
a. Lime Kiln (West of Panswala) b. Post office in village Panthawada
c. Dry tank near village Mohudi Moti 
d. post office in village Panthawada 
e. Perennial lined weill in in village Agdol
f. A temple near Panthawada
g. A temple near village Mahudi Nani Kheda
h. Perennial well near village Gonodara
i. Lime kiln in the north-east of Rampura

QUESTION 3. Give the directions of the following:
a. Village Panthawada (8199) from Kuchawada (7795)
b. village Ganeshpura (8089) from Atal (8186)
c. Village Sodapur (8089) from Mahudi Nani (8192)
d. Village Mahudi Moti (7992) from Rampura (8293)
e. Village Agdol (7689) from Mahudi Moti (7992)
f. Village Kunchawada (7795) from Mahudi Mothi

QUESTION 4 GIVE THE DRAINAGE PATTERNS OF THE FOLLOWING:
a. In grid square 8294
ii In grid square 8194
iii. In grid square 7996

QUESTION 5: Name three man-made features found in grid square 8189

QUESTION 6: State the meaning of each of the following:

a. ∆244 in grid square 8294

b. 50r in grid square 7689

c. 180 in brown grid square 8289

d. 7r in grid square 8392

e. Broken brown line in grid square 7997

f. 7r in grid square 7697

g. A red line passing through the grid square 7890

h. Broken red line in grid square 8390

i. A prominent feature shown in grid square 8195 formed due to lack of water.

j. 3r in grid square 7991
k. 200 in brown ingrid square 8295
 
l. ................ small black dots ingrid square 7993
 
m. 5r in grid square 8491
n. 21r north of village Ganeshpura in grid square 8089

 

QUESTION 7: What is the settlement pattern on this map?



 

QUESTION 8: Give two main occupations of the people. Give reasons.



 

QUESTION 9: Besidethe above two, state another occupation of the people in grid square 8189.



 

QUESTION 10. What is the general slope of the land? Give two reasons.



 

QUESTION 11: Explain the relief of the area.



 

QUESTION 12: What is the difference between the Sipu river and Mahadeviyo Nala?



 

QUESTION 13: What is the mode of transport in the region? Give reasons.

QUESTION 14:What is the mode of irrigation in the region? Give three reasons with suitable symbols.

QUESTION 15: Where are the forests located in the region? Give reasons.



 

 



 

Do you find this useful? If you find useful, I will put more toposheets and questions for your practice. All of you must get full 20 marks in the toposheets and 10 marks in the maps.

 

More exercises will follow. Plan your day and make sure that you study all subjects everyday. Atleast a topic of each subject.

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A9 TOPOSHEETS - EXERCISE 4

 


 
TOPOSHEET 1 FOR REVISION


TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS, CHECK THE TOPO 1 AND THE TOPOSHEET FROM YOUR WORK BOOK - APPENDIX 10 (PAGES 24-25)


a. In which quarter will you look for the lowest contour in the extract of the toposheet? Why should it be in this quarter?


b. Write down the highest and lowest spot heights found on this map. State whether they are in metres or feet.


c. Give a six figure grid reference for the peak of Bhuni-Margi Hill. Also state the grid number in which the hill is located.


d. In which compass direction does the village Pamera lie in respect of Gulabganj? How many kilometres is Pamera from Gulabganj?


e. What kind of roads connect i. Pamera with Gulabganj ii. Gulabganjwith Sirori, respectively?


f. State two important sources of irrigation water in this region. What inference do you draw from this about the main occupation of the people of this region?


g. On which bank of Sipu Nadi is Malgaon situated? What is the social significance of this village?


h. Write down the grid number of the region where you see considerable perennial water. What is the maximum height of the wall impounding water in the tank?
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ANSWERS FOR THE TOPOSHEET TEST

 
double click on the picture and then again click on it
 
aWhat is meant by R. F. ? What is the R.F. of this Sheet?
R.F. means Representative Fraction.It is the ratio between the distances on the map to its corresponding distance on actual ground. The RF on this map is 1:50,000
 
b. What is a scale? What is the scale in this toposheet?
Scale is the ratio between the distance of any two points on the map and the actual distance of the same points on the ground.
The scale of the given map extract is 2 cm: 1 km or 1:50,000
 
c. Name the village where contour of 200 meteres crosses Varka Nala.
Odhava village
d. Give the four figure grid reference of the following:
i. settlement Bantawada - 9978
ii. Village Kotda - 8593
iii. The triangulated height of 277 metres - 8998
e. Name the village where contour of 200 metres crosses Varka Nala.
Odhava village
f. In which quarter of the map extract do you expect the lowest area to be? Why?
South-west quarter of the map is the lowest area because both rivers flow towards the south-west and spot heights are also decreasing in that direction.
gIn what two ways does the river bed of Sipu convey that it flows through a region of seasonal rainfall?
Sipu river flows through a region of seasonal rainfall because we can see an exposed broad sandy riverbed and a thin water channel. We can also see several cart tracks and pack tracks going through the river bed.
h. Give the six-figure grid reference of the following.
i. tringualted height 198 in village Jegol - 854905
ii. the confluence of Varka Nala with Sipu river. - 834927
iii. Survey tree near Gnangudra settlement. - 876934
iv. temple in Jkhapura -934767 or 935768 (approx)
i. What are the conventional signs near north east part of the sheet near open mixed jungle.
These are the broken ground.
j. Furnish two evidences to suggest that the village Jigol is rather better off than the other villages.
Village Jigol has many lined wells for irrigation purposes and several cart tracks.
k. Name any two methods by which relief can be shown on the map.
Relief can be shown on the map by contour lines and spot heights.
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B1 Tired of practising toposheets???? No????? try this one -EXERCISE 5

 
QUESTION:Study the extract of the Survey of India Map sheet No. 45 D/10 and answer the following questions:
a. Give the four figure grid reference for the:
i. Kodra Reservoir
ii. Ghorawala Magra
b. Mention two types of jungles seen in the map.
c. Define scale. What is the scale of the map extract provided to you?
d. What type of transportation system is available in this region? Support your answer with valid reason.
e. What is the chief occupation of the people living in this region? Give reason.
f. Name the main river draining this region shown in the map. What is the general direction of this river?
g. What is the area in square kilometers, of the forested region enclosed by Eastings 22 and 24 and Northings 04 and 06?
h. What is the drainage pattern in grid square 2303?
i. Where are the most of the permanent huts are located? Give reasons for their location.
j. What is the general direction of the Gomti Nadi in the southern half of the map extract? Give two reasons.
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B2 EXERCISE 6- toposheet for practice- have fun

 


( Note: First of all save or copy the toposheet on your desktop for easy reference and then zoom it to study. OR refer to appnedix 6 from your work book for toposheet. Secondly, copy the questions in Ms word and tye the answers in ms word and send it to me as an attachment. Write the question numbers properly)

1. What are the conventional signs located at the points, the six figure grid reference of which are :
i. 992824
ii. 989775
 
2. What is the area (in sq kms) of the region enclosed by eastings 92 and 96and northings 78 and 82?
 
3. What is the compass direction of Bantiwada (9978) from Arniwada (9481)?
 

4. Give the reason why the streams in grid square 9478 do not join the river.

5. Generally, in which direction does the Balaram Nadi flow? Which bank of the main river does it join? 

 

6. Give four-figure grid references:

i. Jungle in the east

ii. Open scrub in the south of Banas river

iii. ∆217

iv. Where Balram nadi joins with Banas river.

v. Village Karja

vi. Mountain peak with spot height 542

vii. settlement Antroli

 

7. Give six-figure grid reference:

i. Temple in village Khara

ii. Prominent surveyed tree in Karja

iii. Tank to the west of Khara village

iv. Chatri to the East of village Ikhapura

v. Temple at Ikhapura

vi. Spot height 381 in South

vii. Prominent surveyed tree 213 south of Banas river.

viii. ∆268 east of open scrub

 

8. Name the geographical feature represented by the brown dots in the southern region of the map extract.

9. Why is there no habitation in the northwest corner of the map?

10. In what way is the pattern of settlement in grid square 9476 different from that in grid square 9580?

11. What difference do you notice in the pattern of drainage in grid square 9684 and the drainage in grid square 9782?

12. In grid square 9379, there is a number 217. What does this indicate?

 

 

13. Give directions of the following:

i. Karja (9781) from Arniwada (9481)

ii. Rampura (9580) from Karja (9781)

iii. Bantawada (9978) from Karja (9781)

iv) Rampura (9580) from Bantawada (9978)

v. Khara (9686) from Manpuria (9786)

vi. dense jungle (9984) from Rampura (9580)

vii. Spot height 522 (north-west) from spot height 301 (9776)

 

14. What is the general land use of : i. even ground ii. uneven ground

15. What do you mean by form lines?

16. Measure the distance of the following:

i. Direct distance in km from Karja (9781) to Banadwana (9978)

ii. Direct distance in km between the settlement Chekhla (9281) and Bantawada (9978)

iii. Indirect distance in km along the pack track from Khara (9686) to Chekla (9381)

iv. Crows distance in kms and metre along cart-track from village Karja (9781) to village Antroli (9576)

17. Give the settlement pattern of the following:

i. In grid square 9781

ii. Along the main river

iii. in grid square 9576

18. List two man-made and two physical features indicated in grid square 9580.

19. Identify the drainage pattern:

i. in grid square 9976

ii. In grid square 9782

 

20. What is meant by contour interval? What is the C.I. of the given map?

21. Does the region receive heavy rainfall? What does the blue line flowing through the Banas river indicate?

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B3 PRACTICE TOPOSHEET -1

 
(click on the picture for the larger picture. plz make an attempt to answer and send the answers to my gmail.)

 
 
 
45D/10 (Eastings 16 -25, Northings 18-27)
 
 
Study the Sheet No. 45D/10 (Eastings 16-25, Northings 18-27) and answer the following questions:-
a) Red parallel lines link north to south. What does it stand for? It is also seen crossing a canal in themiddle part. What is the feature shown at the crossing point? (2)
b) Explain the following terms in the grid square 2025: (2)
i) DB ii) ● 302
c) Give the four figure grid reference of the following. (2)
i) Moti Talao south of the sheet ii) Stony Waste in the north west iii) PO in Pamera Village
iv) Village in Burai Khera
d) What type of river Sipu Nadi is? How is the settlement Gulabanj protected from seasonal floods of this river? (2)
e) Give the direction of the following: (2)
i) Sukli Nadi from Sipu Nadi ii) Gulabanj from Pamera Village (1822)
f) Calculate the length of the road in the map extract from north to south. Mention the end points of the road so calculated. (2)
g) What does fire line in grid square 2519 mean? Give essential references. (2)
h) Describe the land use pattern in the whole area of the map extract. (2)
i) What is the main occupations of the people? (2)
j) Refer to the grid square 1827. Describe two natural forces shown in the area. (2)
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B4-Why dont you try to answer these ?

 
45 D/10; EASTINGS 10 to 18, NORTHINGS 17 - 28
 
Hi, Do you want to score high marks? Do you want to get 20 out of 20 in toposheets? Then why do you wait? Try these questions and answer them. You can work in groups or with your friends. After answering these questions, type them and send them to me. Doesn't matter if it is wrong. Once I get your answers, i will send you the answers of these question in a powerpoint format. I will try to explain these points in the powerpoint. You can also ask me questions. Before you attempt to answer these questions, go through all the points that are in the blog or in your text book. Learn the symbols well. It s interesting and it is fun. Shall we begin? Now , how do you read the toposheets? First , note down some questions in your book and then double click on the picture to get a larger picture so that you can read the symbols very clearly. Ok, I will be online from 5 today. You dont have to anwer all now. You can attempt few questions now and the rest tomorrow. Last date to send the answers - 22nd August. You can mail your answers to brhector21@gmail.com Anyone can attempt these questions. When you mail me, please write your name, class, school, board (ICSE/CBSE/STATE). Thank you. All the best.
 
(double click on the map to enlarge/zoom the picture)

I. Study the map sheet no 45D/10; Eastings 10 to 18, Northings 17-28 and answer the following questions.
a. How does scale of the map affect the area shown by the map?


b. Give four-figure grid references of the following:
i. Settlement Pamera
ii. Open Scrup in the north
iii. Sheet rock north of Dangrali
iv Brackish south of Pamera

c. Give sixfigure grid references of the following:
i. Temple at Nagani
ii. Perennial lined well at Dadarla
iii. Dry tank north of Posintra
iv. Spot heigh 296 south of Dadarla
d. What are conventional signs and symbols.
e. What is the meaning of the following conventional sighs?
i. 294 in grid square 1324
ii. Stony waste in grid square 1525
iii. Blue dots south of village Malgaon
iv. Rock out crop in grid square 1327
v. 6 r in grid square1218
vi. Sheet rock in grid square 1024
f. Give the directions of the following:
i. Settlement Nagani (1224) from open scrub (1326)
ii. Village Mohabbatgarh (1717) from village Hathai (1418)
iii. Village Dadarla (1020) from village Dangrali (1024)
iv. Tank with embankment (1018) from village Pamera (1622)
g. What are Eastings and Northings?
h. Find out the distances between the following:
i.Direct distance in kms between settlement Dangrali (1024) and Malgaon (1620)
ii. Indirect distance in kms along the cart-track from settlement Nagani (1224) to Posintra (1521)

i. i. What is the main mode of transport as shown on the map?
ii. What do you infer about the climate of the region shown by map extract?

j. Calculate the area in square kms of the region enclosed by Eastings 12 to 16 and Northings 18 t0 22.

k. What is the main occupation of the people living in the area shown in the map extract?

l. i. What is the general slope of the land? Give two reasons to support your answer.
ii. What is the main mode of irrigation in the region? Justify your answer with example.

m. Identify the drainage patterns in the following:
i. In grid square 1422 ii. In grid square 1327

n. i. Which part of the map extract is not suitable for agriculture? Give reason.
ii. Locate the highest and lowest point on the map and also give four figure grid reference.

o. Express the meaning of 1:50,000 printed below the map extract.

p. i. Identify the settlement patterns in grid square 1622 and 1619.
ii. Give the man-made feature from the grid square 1224.

q. i. What type of rainfall is received by the region? Give suitable evidence to support your answer.
ii. What type of trees are found in the region by map extract.
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B5-LET US SEE THE ANSWERS

 
45 D/10; Eastings 10-18, Northings 17-28


 
(ANSWERS AND EXPLANATION
 

I. Study the map sheet no 45D/10; Eastings 10 to 18, Northings 17-28 and answer the following questions.
a. How does scale of the map affect the area shown by the map?
The ground area shown by a map changes with the change in scale. The area shown decreases in the scale is enlarged . If two maps of the same size are drawn on different scales , the one on a smaller scale will represent more ground area than the one drawn on a large scale.





b. Give four-figure grid references of the following:
i. Settlement Pamera - 1622




ii. Open Scrup in the north - 1326










iii. Sheet rock north of Dangrali - 1024










iv. Brackish south of Pamera - 1621



c. Give sixfigure grid references of the following:
i. Temple at Nagani - 121244




ii. Perennial lined well at Dadarla - 103207



iii. Dry tank north of Posintra 154212

iv. Spot height 296 south of Dadarla - 098203 




d. What are conventional signs and symbols.
These are standard symbols used on a map and explained in the legend to convey a definite meaning. 


e. What is the meaning of the following conventional signs?
i. 294 in grid square 1324 - Prominent Surveyed tree 294 



ii. Stony waste in grid square 1525 - these are the fragment rock pieces occurred because of weathering of rocks . These are generally seen in arid or semiarid regions. 







iii. Blue dots south of village Malgaon – Perennial lined wells 



iv. Rock out crop in grid square 1327 – It is found in open scrup with scanty desert type vegetation where rocks are cropped out. 

v. 6 r in grid square1218 – The relative height of river bank is 6 metre.





vi. Sheet rock in grid square 1024 – these are well polished hard rocks which are exposed to the surface. 




f. Give the directions of the following:
i. Settlement Nagani (1224) from open scrub (1326) - South West
ii. Village Mohabbatgarh (1717) from village Hathai (1418) South east
iii. Village Dadarla (1020) from village Dangrali (1024)- south
iv. Tank with embankment (1018) from village Pamera (1622) - South west



g. What are Eastings and Northings?
Eastings is the distance due east in Longitude from the preceding points of measurement. Northing is the distance due north in latitude from the preceding points of measurement . Both lines are shown in red colour on the map. 




h. Find out the distances between the following:
i.Direct distance in kms between settlement Dangrali (1024) and Malgaon (1620)
Direct distance between settlement Dangrali and Malgaon is 14 cm.
1 cm on the map represents 500 m on the ground or 2 cm on the map equals 1000 m on the ground.
14 cm on the map represents 500 X 14= 7000m or 7 km.

ii. Indirect distance in kms along the cart-track from settlement Nagani (1224) to Posintra (1521)
Indirect distance along the cart track from settlement Nagani to Posintra is 9 cm.
1 cm on the map represents 500 m on the ground or 2 cm on the map equals 1000 m on the ground.
9 cm on the map represent 500 X 9 = 4500 mtr or 4km and 500m.

i. i. What is the main mode of transport as shown on the map?
Cart -track is the main mode of transport. 



ii. What do you infer about the climate of the region shown by map extract?
The region has Tropical monsoonal climate.

j. Calculate the area in square kms of the region enclosed by Eastings 12to 16 and Northings 18 t0 22.
On the given map, each grid square measures 2cm X 2 cm or 1 km X 1km
Therefore , the area of each square is 1 sq km. the number of squares between Eastings 12 to 16 and northings 18 – 22 is 16
Therefore the total area of specified region is 16 sq km. 





k. What is the main occupation of the people living in the area shown in the map extract?
Agriculture is the main occupation




l. i. What is the general slope of the land? Give two reasons to support your answer.
The general slope of land is from North to South. It is evident from the flow of streams and spot heights given on the map.






ii. What is the main mode of irrigation in the region? Justify your answer with example.
The main mode of irrigation is perennial lined well because it is supported by the presence of blue dots on the map extract. 



 

m. Identify the drainage patterns in the following:
i. In grid square 1422 - Dendritic drainage pattern
ii. ii. In grid square 1327 - Radial drainage pattern 






 
n. i. Which part of the map extract is not suitable for agriculture? Give reason.
Northern part because of sloping land and erosion by streams. 







 
ii. Locate the highest and lowest point on the map and also give four figure grid reference.
Highest point – spot height 362 (1627)
Lowest point - Contour of 180 m (1517)

o. Express the meaning of 1:50,000 printed below the map extract.
It means 1 unit on the map represents 50,000 units of the ground . It is also known as Representative Fraction. 





 

p. i. Identify the settlement patterns in grid square 1622 and 1619.
Compact or Nucleated and Dispersed settlement 





 






 
ii.Give the man-made feature from the grid square 1224.
Temple, huts, cart-track, pack-tracks, perennial lined well. 







 
q. i. What type of rainfall is received by the region? Give suitable evidence to support your answer.
The region receives seasonal rainfall, it is evident from the dry river bed, dry tanks and presence of islands in the river. 



 

ii.What type of trees are found in the region by map extract.
Mixed vegetation and plantation palms
 
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B6-CHECK THIS TOPOSHEET

 
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